Assessing and Treating Symptoms with Non-Pharmacological Treatments in the Older Adult with Dementia at End-of-Life

Assessing and Treating Symptoms with Non-Pharmacological Treatments in the Older Adult with Dementia at End-of-Life


With the growing elderly population, dementia is increasing and more families are reaching out to hospice for end-of-life support. Dementia affects 50 million individuals with a growth of 10 million new diagnosis annually. Dementia is projected to reach 82 million individuals in 2030. More than 1.4 million Americans are receiving hospice care every year. Psychotropic medications have conventional efficacy and may lead to undesired side effects; however, the medications continue to be frequently used to relieve behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Non-pharmacological interventions present fewer side effects and are safer options. Non-pharmacological alternatives, including music therapy, pet therapy, art therapy, behavioral therapy, aromatherapy, physical activities, and tailored activities, are promising results for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.


  1. Distinguish the common types of dementia.

  2. Analyze the effectiveness of various non-pharmacological interventions for pain based on the pain etiology.

  3. Identify neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and their usual presentation.

  4. Recognize potential causes of neuropsychiatric symptoms in older adults with dementia and manage symptoms. 

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